Discovering Jewish Artists Who Helped Salzburg Succeed

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Mr. von Hofmannsthal begged Mrs. Zuckerkandl to use her influence to promote the nascent festival. “We want to glorify Salzburg, the pearl of Austrian cities, the birthplace of Mozart,” the playwright told him. “After the Empire has disappeared as a political entity, Max Reinhardt and I want to at least immortalize its spirit.”

Twenty years later, after being forced to flee Vienna, Ms. Zuckerkandl wrote, “Austria is no more and the spirit of the great initiators Hofmannsthal and Reinhardt has been exiled.” He died in exile in Paris in 1945.

Archival materials, including photographs, artwork and documents, include influential set designer Oskar Strnad; Arnold Rosé, conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic; singers Rosette Anday and Claire Born; and choreographers Tilly Losch and Margarete Wallmann.

But the show also shows the fate of German and Austrian artists who profited from the Nazis’ cultural policies, among them chiefs Wilhelm Furtwängler, Karl Böhm and Herbert von Karajan, who enjoyed great success after the war. The exhibition is candid about the festival’s reluctance to confront its Nazi past in the post-war period.

One of the few who forced such a showdown was painter Oskar Kokoschka when he was invited to design sets and costumes for “The Magic Flute” in 1955. According to Mr. Patka, Mr. Kokoschka refused to cooperate with Mr. von. Karajan, who joined the Nazi Party in Salzburg.

Instead of the festival, he hired Georg Solti. Mr. Solti, Hungarian and Jewish, later became musical director of the Chicago Symphony and was a regular in Salzburg until his death in 1997.

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