When Classical Music Is An Alibi

The Allies were eager to “cleanse” the reputation of musicians whose talents they valued, and even helped some of them go through the de-Nazis process. soprano on July 4, 1945 Elisabeth Schwarzkopf He was asked to fill out a Fragebogen as he was on the Salzburg register of the National Socialists in Austria. Had the form been deemed acceptable, the US military would have approved his return to the scene.

However, Otto von Pasetti, the American intelligence officer who oversaw the case, destroyed the form when he realized that the woman was lying on the form. The next day, he was asked to fill another one. More accurately, though, Pasetti accepted this because Schwarzkopf’s status as a famous diva had convinced her that “another suitable singer” for major opera performances was not found. Shortly thereafter, he climbed into a jeep driven by an American officer, Lieutenant Albert van Arden, and was taken to Graz, Austria, 250 kilometers away to sing Konstanze in Mozart’s “Die Entführung aus dem Serail”.

[After1945careercontinuitywasthenormratherthantheexceptionDenazificationdefinedimmediateemployabilitybutwasonlyonefactorintheexpectationsofmusiciansArtistswhowantedtocontinuetheircareers[1945’tensonrakariyersürekliliğiistisnadançoknormduDenazifikasyondurumuanındaistihdamedilebilirliğitanımladıancakmüzisyenlerinbeklentilerindeyalnızcabirfaktördüKariyerlerinedevametmekisteyensanatçılarthey easily identified themselves As prisoners of war, refugees, bombing victims, disabled soldiers and widows, many face housing and food insecurity. Reference letters used post-war distress as a justification for primary consideration, or sought to explain how a person was drawn into what he called the “vortex” of Nazi politics. A baritone reassured the rulers that, despite being detained in a prison camp for several years, he still “has the opportunity to practice.”

These claims of hardship easily turned into narratives of victimhood. Concert halls and opera houses, formerly bombed on Nazi soil, were powerful symbols of destruction and the necessity of rebuilding, but they also allowed the focus to shift from Nazi atrocities to German suffering. At the opening of the reconstructed Vienna State Opera on November 5, 1955, just months after Williams’ debut with “Butterfly,” conductor Karl Böhm, who had performed to celebrate Hitler’s annexation of Austria in 1938, was in celebration. was on the podium. . No surviving Jews were invited to participate.

Demonstrations among the debris It revived a sense of community and sought to rehabilitate classical music as inherently humanistic, universal, and uplifting after its supposed “degeneration” by its propaganda use during the Nazi era. In “The German Catastrophe” (1946), historian Friedrich Meinecke recalled the power of German music as a restorative force: “What is more individual and more German than the great German music, from Bach to Brahms?” For Meinecke, the country’s music was liberating, expressing the national spirit while still carrying a “universal Western influence.”

Encouraged by the Allies, some composers supported the idea that modernist musical techniques were specifically antifascist because they had been banned by the Nazis. exaggeration both the style of the Nazi authorities and the level of control they exercised over the arts. Winfried Zillig, a German composing in the 12-tone style, has many Career achievements from 1933 to 1945awarded as a reward for the political merits of his operas, including major opera premieres and a position in occupied Poland.

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